Beyond Essay Structure: Competence and Literacy

Mister Gidion Maru, Ekawati Marhenny Dukut, Nihta Liando


This paper intends to share the making of the students’ competence and literacy awareness in the teaching of essay writing using jeremiad approach, which is so-called T-Ex, approach in EFL class. The approach suggests three aspects namely text explanation which prescribes the identification and presentation of a certain challenging issue. It is followed by the step of text examination that underlines the presence of possible solution toward the issue by referring to related knowledge and technology, socio-cultural values, and outstanding figures. It is concluded by the text expectation that proposes the hope of recalling the acquired knowledge and sharing it for future anticipation. All of the steps rely upon the language competence since they use language as a media of constructing and recognizing as well as negotiating the message(s). As a qualitative research, this study involves students as the respondents to be interviewed. Students’ Intellectual diaries and essay drafts were also regarded as data. The students were assigned to write an essay on the topic of corruption. The data are interpreted in the way of the grounded theory. The results imply that the students are encouraged and driven to search for relevant knowledge, to recall related values and figures, and to construct the future awareness. These aspects summarize the potential of combining the language competence and literacy in the classroom activities.


Jeremiad approach, essay, literacy, competence

Full Text:



Antoro, B., & Muldian, W. (2015). Buku saku gerakan literasi sekolah Ditjen Dikdasmen Kemendikbud [Pocket book for the school literacy movement Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education Ministry of Education and Culture].

Ardriyati, W., & Hartono, H. (2004). Contextual coherence in recount essay. Celt: A Journal of Culture, English Language Teaching & Literature, 4(1), 19-27.

Bacha, N. N. (2002). Testing Writing. In English teaching forum (Vol. 40). US Department of State.

Bui, T. (2016). Critical Literacy in an EFL Classroom in Vietnam: Agentive Empowerment, Ideological and Language Transformations. The Journal of AsiaTEFL, 13(4), 247-261.

Crowley, J. (2015). Graphic novels in the school library: using graphic novels to encourage reluctant readers and improve literacy. The School Librarian, 63(3), 140.

Emilia, E. (2010). Teaching writing: Developing critical learners. Bandung, Indonesia: Rizqi Press.

Ganji, M. (2009). Teacher-correction, peer-correction and self-correction: Their impacts on Iranian students’ IELTS essay writing performance. The journal of Asia TEFL, 6(1), 117-139.

Herbert, J. C. (2003). English Prime as an Instructional tool in writing classes. In English Teaching Forum, 41(3), 26-31.

Hounsell, D. (1987). Essay writing and the quality of feedback in Richardson.

Hounsell, D. (1997). Understanding teaching and teaching for understanding. The experience of learning, 2.

Indah, R. N. (2017). Critical thinking, writing performance and topic familiarity of Indonesian EFL learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(2), 229-236.

Jandciu, E., Stewart, J. J., Stoodley, R., Birol, G., Han, A., & Fox, J. A. (2015). Bridging the Gap: Embedding Communication Courses in the Science Undergraduate Curriculum. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 26(4), 103-123.

Kuo, J. M. (2014). Critical literacy in the EFL classroom: Evolving multiple perspectives through learning tasks. The Journal of AsiaTEFL, 11(4), 109-138.

Lai, S. J. (2005). English Literacy Learning as a Socially Situated Practice. The Journal of AsiaTEFL, 2(4), 41-65.

Lai, S. J. (2004). Learning English Literacy as an Aspect of Social Practice. The Journal of AsiaTEFL, 1(1), 131-147.

Maru, M. G. (2013). Jeremiad Frames in Reagan’s inaugural addresses. Jurnal Humaniora, 25(1), 25-37.

Maru, M. G. (2014). Experimenting Jeremiadic Approach as an Alternative for TEFL in Meeting the Demand of the 2013 Curriculum. In Proceeding. 61th TEFLIN International Conference.

Dukut, E. M. (2018). The Use of the T-Ex Approach in Indonesian EFL Essay Writing: Feedbacks and Knowledge Exploration.

Thornberg, R. (2012). Informed grounded theory. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 56(3), 243-259.

Warburton, N. (2006). The basics of essay writing. London: Routledge.


Copyright (c) 2018 Celt: A Journal of Culture, English Language Teaching & Literature

| pISSN (print): 1412-3320 | eISSN (online): 2502-4914 | web
analytics View My Stats