The Observable Students’ Divergent Approach as Experienced in a Seminar on Language Teaching Class

Didik Rinan Sumekto,


This study aims at observing the undergraduate students’ divergent approach experience toward their language teaching seminar’ presentation and discussion. Ninety-one students (n=91) of English education department participated as the respondents. Data collection used a random sampling, whereas data analysis was examined through the descriptive statistics, simple correlation and two-tailed regression analysis with the significance level of .05. The divergent approach was found as a moderate category. The findings showed that M=17.44; SD=2.829 for learning control and objectives, M=19.70; SD=3.638 for language awareness, and M=11.97; SD=2.095 for students’ interaction with the significance level of F=62.564; R²=.683; and p<.00. The partial linearity analysis of learning control and objectives showed that t=3.645; p=.000, language awareness was t=2.648; p=.010, and students interaction was t=4.341; p=.000. These three predictors contributed a positive and significant influence toward the divergent approach. In further, a step-wise equivalence was applied to accommodate the two-tailed regression analysis, where its equivalence was Y=1.014+.381X1+.253X2+.660X3

Save to Mendeley


Divergence, interaction, language awareness, learning control.

Full Text:



Andrews, S. (2007). Teacher Language Awareness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Aregbeyen, O. (2010). Students’ perceptions of effective teaching and effective lecturer characteristics at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2), 62-69.

Başyurt Tüzel, A. E., & Akcan, S. (2009). Raising the language awareness of pr-service English teachers in an EFL context. European Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 271-287.

Bate, E., Hommes, J., Duvivier, R., & Taylor, D. C. (2014). Problem-Based Learning (PBL): Getting the most out of your students–Their roles and responsibilities: AMEE Guide No. 84. Medical teacher, 36(1), 1-12.

Bentley-Williams, R., & Morgan, J. (2013). Inclusive education: pre-service teachers' reflexive learning on diversity and their challenging role. Asia-Pacific journal of teacher education, 41(2), 173-185.

Briggs, A. R., & Sommefeldt, D. (2002). Managing effective learning and teaching. London: Sage.

Brok, P. D., Bergen, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2006). Convergence and divergence between students'and teachers'perceptions of instructional behaviour in dutch secondary education. Contemporary approaches to research on learning environments: Worldviews (pp. 125-160).

Callies, M., & Keller, W. R. (2008). The teaching and acquisition of focus constructions: An integrated approach to language awareness across the curriculum. Language Awareness, 17(3), 249-266.

Carter, R. (2003). Language Awareness. ELT journal, 57(1), 64-65.

Chang, S. P., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Omae, H. (2011). The multidimensionality of multicultural service learning: The variable effects of social identity, context and pedagogy on pre-service teachers’ learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(7), 1078-1089.

Danili, E., & Reid, N. (2006). Cognitive factors that can potentially affect pupils’ test performance. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 7(2), 64-83.

Dijk, L. A. V., Berg, G. C. V. D., & Keulen, H. V. (2001). Interactive Lectures in Engineering Education. European Journal of Engineering Education, 26(1), 15-28. doi: 10.1080/03433790010008780

Dunn, L., Morgan, C., O’Reilly., & Parry, S. (2004). The Student Assessment Handbook. London: Routledge Falmer-Taylor & Francis Group.

Dunn, R. S., & Griggs, S. A. (1998). Multiculturalism and learning style: Teaching and counseling adolescents. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child development, 82(1), 405-432.

Dym, C. L., Agogino, A. M., Eris, O., Frey, D. D., & Leifer, L. J. (2005). Engineering design thinking, teaching, and learning. Journal of engineering education, 94(1), 103-120.

Ellis, E. M. (2012). Language awareness and its relevance to TESOL. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 7.

de Ridder, I. (2005). Action Learning in Practice: how do participants learn?.

Hassan, N., Md. Jani, S. H., Som, R. M., Hamid, N. R. A., & Azizam, N. A. (2015). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Teaching Effectiveness among Lecturers at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Malaysia. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 5(1), 1-5. doi: 10.7763/IJSSH.2015.V5.411

Hawkes, M. (2007). Reflective outcomes of convergent and divergent group tasking in the online learning environment. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8(2), 95.

Heeter, S. V. (2003). The effects of judgments of learning and locus of control on achievement of various educational objectives and allocated study time.

Hegeman, J. (2008). The thinking behind design: A Thesis to the School of Design (master’s thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States).

Hewitt, D. (2008). Understanding effective learning: strategies for the classroom. New York: McGrawHill.

Heywood, J. (2005). Engineering education: Research and development in curriculum and instruction. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.

Huang, S. C. (2010). Convergent vs. divergent assessment: Impact on college EFL students’ motivation and self-regulated learning strategies. Language Testing, 28(2), 251-271.

Irons, A. (2007). Enhancing learning through formative assessment and feedback. Routledge.

Kuo, Y. C., Chu, H. C., & Huang, C. H. (2015). A Learning Style-based Grouping Collaborative Learning Approach to Improve EFL Students' Performance in English Courses. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(2).

Lea, S. J., & Callaghan, L. (2008). Lecturers on teaching within the ‘supercomplexity’of Higher Education. Higher Education, 55(2), 171.

Lewis, T. (2005). The effective learning of languages in tandem. In J. A. Coleman, & J. Klopper, Effective Learning and Teaching in Modern Languages (pp. 165-172). Oxon: Routledge.

Lomas, G. (2009). Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematics Education Lecturers' Practice: Identifying Issues for Curriculum Development. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 11, 4-21.

Lucas, T. (2005). Language awareness and comprehension through puns among ESL learners. Language Awareness, 14(4), 221-238.

Long, C. S., Ibrahim, Z., & Kowang, T. O. (2013). An analysis on the relationship between lecturers’ competencies and students’ satisfaction. International Education Studies, 7(1), 37.

Martin, C. (2008). Primary Languages: Effective learning and teaching. Learning Matters.

McMillan, H. J., & Schumacher, S. (2001). Research in Education: A Conceptual Introduction (5th ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Murphy, R., & Sharma, N. (2010). What Don’t We Know About Interactive Lectures? Seminar.Net, 6(1). Retrieved from

Navaz, A. M. M. (2013). A Study on Perception of Lecturer-Student Interaction in English Medium Science Lectures. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 7(2), 117-136.

Nelson, D. B., & Low, G. R. (2003). Emotional Intelligence: Achieving Academic and Career Excellence in College and in Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Petocz, P., Duke, M., Bilgin, A., & Reid, A. (2012). Exploring peer learning: student to student, lecturer to lecturer. Asian Social Science, 8(14), 91.

Pritchard, A. (2009). Ways of learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom. Routledge.

Riese, H., Samara, A., & Lillejord, S. (2012). Peer relations in peer learning. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 25(5), 601-624.

Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge university press.

Richmond, P. V., Wrench, J. S., & Gorham, J. (2009). Communication, affect, & learning in the classroom.

Sagayadevan, V., & Jeyaraj, S. (2012). The Role of Emotional Engagement in Lecturer-Student Interaction and the Impact on Academic Outcomes of Student Achievement and Learning. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 12(3), 1-30.

Saginor, N. (2008). Diagnostic classroom observation: moving beyond best practice. Corwin Press.

Saunders-Stewart, K. S., Gyles, P. D. T., Shore, B. M., & Bracewell, R. J. (2015). Student outcomes in inquiry: Students’ perspectives. Learning Environments Research, 18(2), 289-311.

Şener, S. (2015). Foreign language learning anxiety and achievement: A case study of the students studying at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Electronic Turkish Studies, 10(3).

Svalberg, A. M. (2007). Language awareness and language learning. Language Teaching, 40(4), 287-308.

Torrance, H., & Pryor, J. (2001). Developing formative assessment in the classroom: Using action research to explore and modify theory. British Educational Research Journal, 27(5), 615-631.

Walvoord, B. E., & Anderson, V. J. (2011). Effective grading: A tool for learning and assessment in college. John Wiley & Sons.

Yang, Y. F. (2013). Exploring Students' Language Awareness through Intercultural Communication in Computer-supported Collaborative Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(2).

Zavaleta, K. L. (2014). The Role of Executive Control in Language Learning (Doctoral Thesis).


Article Metrics

Abstract viewed : 246 times
PDF files downloaded : 32 times

Copyright (c) 2018 Celt: A Journal of Culture, English Language Teaching & Literature

| pISSN (print): 1412-3320 | eISSN (online): 2502-4914 | web
analytics View My Stats