Fraud Triangle dan Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan Dengan Model Beneish M-Score

Novi Indriani, Abdul Rohman



The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the effect of risk factors on the detection of fraudulent financial reporting using the fraud triangle theory. The risk of fraudulent financial reporting is reflected in financial targets, financial stability, the nature of the industry, and auditor turnover as suggested by the Beneish M-Score model. The sample was selected from companies belonging to the consumer goods industry listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the 2018-2020 period. By using a purposive sampling method, as many as 99 firm observations are available for further examination. Multiple linear regression analysis is used to test the hypotheses. The results show that financial stability and the nature of the industry have a positive and significant effect on financial statement fraud. However, financial targets and auditor turnover have no effect on fraudulent financial reporting. The results of this study are useful for stakeholders, such as potential investors, investors, creditors, auditors, or other parties, in detecting financial statements that contain fraud, especially those triggered by financial stability and the nature of the industry.


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan bukti empiris pengaruh risiko terhadap pendeteksian kecurangan pelaporan keuangan menggunakan teori segitiga kecurangan. Risiko kecurangan pelaporan keuangan tercermin dalam target keuangan, stabilitas keuangan, sifat industri, dan pergantian auditor seperti yang disarankan oleh model Beneish M-Score. Sampel dipilih dari perusahaan yang termasuk dalam industri barang konsumsi yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) periode 2018-2020. Sebanyak 99 observasi perusahaan tersedia untuk pengujian hipotesis. Analisis regresi berganda menunjukkan bahwa stabilitas keuangan dan sifat industri berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap kecurangan laporan keuangan. Namun, target keuangan dan pergantian auditor tidak berpengaruh pada pelaporan keuangan yang curang. Hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat bagi pemangku kepentingan, seperti calon investor, investor, kreditur, auditor, atau pihak lain, dalam mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan, terutama yang dipicu oleh stabilitas keuangan dan sifat industri.


Financial statement fraud; financial target; financial stability; nature of industry


ACFE. 2018. Report To The Nations.

____. 2020. Report To The Nations.

Ak, B. K., P.M. Dechow., Y. Suan., and A.Y. Wang. 2013. The Use of Financial Ratio Models to Help Investors Predict and Interpret Significant Corporate Events. Australian Journal of Management 38(3): 1–74.

Albrecht, W. S., C. O. Albrecht., and M. F. Zimbelman. 2012. Fraud Examination. Cengage Learning.

Beneish, M. D. 1999. The Detection of Earnings Manipulation. Financial Analysts Journal 55(5): 24–36.

Beneish, M. D., M.C.Lee., and D.C Nichols. 2013. Earnings Manipulation and Expected Returns. Financial Analysts Journal 69(2): 57–82.

Dalnial, H., A. Kamaluddin., Z. M. Sanusi., dan K.S. Khairuddin. 2014. Detecting Fraudulent Financial Reporting through Financial Statement Analysis. Journal of Advanced Management Science 2(1): 17–22.

DeFond, M. L. 1992. The Association Between Changes in Client Firm Agency Costs and Auditor Switching. Auditing 11(1): 1–15.

Deloitte. 2021. Decoding Frauds in the Manufacturing Sector: Detect. Respon. Prevent.

Devi, P. N. C., A. A. G. P. Widanaputra., I. G. A. N. Budiasih., and N. K. Rasmini. 2021. The Effect of Fraud Pentagon Theory on Financial Statements: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business 8(3): 1163–1169.

Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Agency Theory : An Assessment and Review. The Academy of Management 14(1): 57–74.

Fitri, F. A., M. Syukur, and G. Justisa. 2019. Do The Fraud Triangle Components Motivate Fraud In Indonesia?. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal 13(4): 63–72.

Haqq, A. P. N. A., and G.S. Budiwitjaksono. 2019. Fraud Pentagon for Detecting Financial Statement Fraud. Journal of Economics, Business, and Accountancy Ventura 22(3): 319–332.

Harman, S. A., and Y. Bernawati. 2021. Determinant of Financial Statement Fraud: Fraud Pentagon Perspective in Manufacturing Companies. Review of International Geographical Education (RIGEO) 11(4): 554–566.

Hidayah, E., and G.D. Saptarini. 2019. Pentagon Fraud Analysis in Detecting Potential Financial Statement Fraud of Banking Companies in Indonesia. Paper ini disajikan pada Proceeding of The 3rd International Conference on Accounting, Business & Economics, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, n.d.

Husmawati, P., Y. Septriani., I. Rosita., and D. Handayani. 2017. Fraud Pentagon Analysis in Assessing the Likelihood of Fraudulent Financial Statement (Study on Manufacturing Firms Listed in Bursa Efek Indonesia Period 2013-2016). Paper ini disajikan pada International Conference of Applied Science on Engineering, Business, Linguistics and Information Technology (ICo-ASCNITech), Padang, Indonesia dan Johor, Malaysia, 13-15 Oktober 2017.

Irwandi, S. A., I. Ghozali., Faisal., and I. D. Pamungkas. 2019. Detection Fraudulent Financial Statement: Beneish M-Score Model. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics 16: 271–281.

Jensen, M. C., and W.H. Meckling. 1976. Theory of The Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure. Journal of Financial Economics 3: 305–360.

Khamainy, A. H., M. Ali., and M. A. Setiawan. 2021. Detecting Financial Statement Fraud Through New Fraud Diamond Model: The Case of Indonesia Model. Journal of Financial Crime.

Lestari, M. I., dan D. Henny. 2019. Pengaruh Fraud Pentagon Terhadap Fraudulent Financial Statements pada Perusahaan Perbankan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia Tahun 2015-2017. Jurnal Akuntansi Trisakti 6(1): 141-156.

Pamungkas, I. D., and S.D. Utomo. 2018. Fraudulent Financial Reporting: An Application of Fraud Pentagon Theory to Association of Southeast Asian Nations Corporate Governance Scorecard. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics 9(5): 1729-1737.

Rezaee, Z.; and R. Riley. 2002. Financial Statement Fraud: Prevention and Detection. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

Rizani, F., and N.W.T Respati. 2018. Factors Influencing The Presentation of Fraudulent Financial Reporting in Indonesia. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics 9(1): 254–264.

Sari, M. P., Kiswanto., L.V. Rahmadani., H. Khairunnisa., and I.D. Pamungkas. 2020. Detection Fraudulent Financial Reporting and Corporate Governance Mechanisms Using Fraud Diamond Theory of The Property and Construction Sectors In Indonesia. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews 8(3): 1065–1072.

Sari, M.P.; N. Pramasheilla; Fachrurrozie; T. Suryarini; and I.D. Pamungkas. 2020. Analysis of Fraudulent Financial Reporting With The Role of KAP Big Four as A Moderation Variable: Crowe's Fraud's Pentagon Theory. International Journal of Financial Research 11(5): 180-190.

Skousen, C. J., K.R. Smith., and C.J. Wright. 2008. Detecting and Predicting Financial Statement Fraud: The Effectiveness of the Fraud Triangle and SAS No. 99. SSRN Electronic Journal 99.

Suparmini, N. K., D. Ariyanto., and I. M. A. P. Wistawan. 2020. Pengujian Fraud Diamond Theory pada Indikasi Financial Statement Fraud di Indonesia. E-Jurnal Akuntansi 30(6): 1441–1457.

Umar, H.; D. Partahi; and R.B. Purba. 2020. Fraud Diamond Analysis In Detecting Fraudulent Financial Report. International Journal Of Scientific & Technology Research 9(3): 6638–6646.

Yusrianti, H., I. Ghozali., E. Yuyetta., Aryanto., and E. Meirawati. 2020. Financial Statement Fraud Risk Factors of Fraud Triangle : Evidence From Indonesia. International Journal of Financial Research 11(4): 36–51.


Print ISSN : 1412-775X | online ISSN : 2541-5204 JAB Stats